Amino Acids | The Building Blocks of Protein
May 04, 2020 Lynn Liu By Lynn Liu My Articles

Amino Acids | The Building Blocks of Protein

We tend to think that protein is a simple macronutrient that your body needs. However, if you ever took a biology class you know that protein is not a single substance. Instead, there are many different parts to a protein; amino acids are a crucial part, known as the building blocks of protein. Let’s take a deeper dive into these organic compounds and their important function in our everyday lives

What Are Amino Acids? 

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins. They are typically known as the building blocks of protein. Beyond building proteins, they also assist in the synthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters.1

Made up of one or more linear chains of amino acids (called polypeptides), in total there are 20 types of amino acids commonly found in proteins.2 You can think of it as different flavours that get linked together like beads on a string to make long chains that we call polypeptides, and those are the building blocks of proteins. The really neat thing about amino acids is that when they're linked together, they fold to make the final shape of the protein, and the shape of the protein dictates what it can do in the cell.3 The basic structure of an amino acid is a central carbon atom bonded to an amino group (NH2), a carboxyl group (COOOH), and a hydrogen atom.4

3 Types of Amino Acids 

1. Conditional amino acids

When the body experiences periods of extreme trauma or stress from thermal injury, sepsis, surgery, nonessential amino acids become conditionally essential, or conditionally indispensable.5 Your body overworks during periods of recovery and needs all the assistance it can get. Therefore, conditional amino acids are usually not essential except during times of illnesses and stress. These include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, ornithine, proline, and serine. 

2. Non-essential amino acids

Nonessential amino acids are those which are created in the body, even if we do not get it from the food we eat.Nonessential amino acids include: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

3. Essential amino acids

Lastly, we have our essential amino acids. Essential amino acids are amino acids that your body cannot make, so they must come from food.7 The nine essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.

You do not need to eat essential and nonessential amino acids at every meal, but getting a balance of them over the whole day is important.8

Learn more about the 9 essential amino acids and food sources to find them

Benefits of Amino Acids

 

Amino acids are ultimately the building blocks of protein, providing a crucial role in repairing health and protecting your body from diseases. Studies have also shown several health benefits when taken in concentrated doses such as supplemental forms.9 Other studies show that amino acids decrease protein breakdown during exercise and decrease levels of creatine kinase, which is an indicator of muscle damage.10

By incorporating food that are filled with amino acids you will see improvements in your mood, sleep, athletic performance, and muscle gain. Fortunately, you can find these compounds in many animal and plant-based foods.

Read more on protein rich foods


Created by Paulina Cerna-Fraga

Which foods do you like to include to boost your amino acid intake? Let us know in the comments below!

May 04, 2020 Lynn Liu By Lynn Liu My Articles
 

References

  1. Dietzen, D.J. (2018). “Amino acids, peptides, and proteins.” Accessed 14 February 2020.
  2. Wu, G. (2009). “Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition.” Accessed 14 February 2020.
  3. Baldwin, T. & Lapointe, M. (2003). “The Chemistry of Amino Acids. The Biology Project”. Accessed 14 February 2020.
  4. Brosnan, J.T. (2001). “Amino acids, then and now—a reflection on Sir Hans Kreb’s contribution to nitrogen metabolism.” Accessed 14 February 2020.
  5. Ananieva, E. (2015). “Targeting amino acid metabolism in cancer growth and anti-tumor immune response.” Accessed 14 February 2020.
  6. Roos, D. & Loos, J.A. (1973). “Changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of mitogenically stimulated human peripheral lymphocytes. II. Relative importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation on phytohaemagglutinin stimulation.” Accessed 14 February
  7. Tessari, P., Lante, A. & Mosca, G. (2016). “Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?” Accessed 14 February 2020.
  8. Trumbo, P., et al. (2002). “Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids.” Accessed 14 February 2020.
  9. Helms, E.R., Aragon, A.A. & Fitschen, P.J. (2014). “Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation.” Accessed 14 February 2020.
  10. Pasiakos, S.M. & McClung, J.P. (2011). “Supplemental dietary leucine and the skeletal muscle anabolic response to essential amino acids.” Accessed 14 February 2020.