Pesticide Alternatives | Organic Farming
Ever heard of eutrophication? It’s a huge problem in lakes and oceans (or any other body of water) caused by agricultural pesticide or artificial fertilizer runoff. When fertilizer runoff leaks into the water it releases nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, which leads to algal blooms and ‘dead zones’, where you’ll likely see suffocated fish and other dead aquatic life floating amongst gross green gunk.
With such clear environmental and ecological impacts of pesticides, it’s no wonder government regulations have hammered down, becoming more strict.2 Moreover, the potential health effects of pesticide residue have scared more and more of us into buying products we think are pesticide-free.3 Even if policies are in place to ensure legal maximum residue levels, which have been deemed scientifically safe for consumption,4 the movement towards avoiding pesticides has been gaining momentum.
Yet, pests are still a major problem in food production. And, I’m not certain I would necessarily want to see a caterpillar in my salad (even if it’s a good source of protein).
Here are 3 agricultural alternatives that can keep crops pest-free without conventional pesticides:
1. Biocontrol (aka: biological control)
It’s not as scary as it sounds—think of bio in terms of biology, and control as in maintenance. Essentially, biocontrol is using a pest’s natural enemy (like a specific insect or bacterial strain) to fend off the pests.5 Extensive research is conducted to ensure that these natural enemies don’t inflict unintended damage to the native vegetation or other insects, only targeting the specific pests eating away at crops.
But biocontrol is not a modern invention. In fact, it was first reportedly used in ancient China around 304 C.E., in which citrus fruits were protected by ants from other insects!6 Today, other organisms are also being used, like microscopic worms (aka: nematodes).
2. Polyculture (companion planting)
Think of poly in terms of many, and culture in terms of growth (like crop growth in agriculture). Essentially, it means planting multiple types of crops in the same field rather than just one specific type.7 Within polyculture, there is a concept called ‘companion planting’. It’s just as it sounds: you plant partner-plants together with crops as a means to support the crop.8
From a pest-control lens, it’s ideal to plant plants that naturally repel specific pests of your crop. For example, if you plant tomatoes with cabbage, the tomatoes naturally repel diamond-backed moth larvae that eat cabbage. Or, basil with tomato can fend of flies and mosquitoes.8
3. Natural Barriers & Predators
You know how feudal lords used to create a moat around their castle to create additional barriers of defence? Natural barriers against pests are somewhat similar, except it’s more about planting rather than just digging.
For example, UK farmers plant tussock grass to cut across the middle of their agricultural field, giving a home to beetles and spiders that would protect the nearby crops from aphid pests. To read more about beetle banks, click here.
Each of these alternatives have a different scalability in agricultural production. But hopefully you can implement some of these alternatives in your own backyard or urban farm!
Have any more ideas to keep the pests away without pesticide? Let us know in the comments below!