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December 08, 2020 Lynn Liu By Lynn Liu My Articles

What Are Prebiotics | Foods and Supplements?

In the last few years we’ve seen emerging evidence on the importance of gut health to our overall well-being. So how do prebiotics foods and supplements play a role in a healthy gut?

Our bodies host ~10 trillion tiny organisms (bacteria, fungi and other microbes) that live mostly in our digestive tract, outnumbering our human cells 10 to 1.1 This is what we call our microbiota. Our bodies have a symbiotic relationship with these microorganisms that not only help aid in our digestion process but also regulate our mood and hormones. 

With most of our immune system located in our gut,2 our microbiota is also heavily involved with how stress affects our body. When operating optimally, this immune-microbial alliance allows our body to arm itself with immunities necessary for it to thrive.

What are Prebiotics? 

Our digestive systems rely on the presence of ‘good’ bacteria in our guts, and are thrown off balance by the presence of ‘bad’ bacteria. Prebiotics are essentially ‘food’ for the healthy bacteria (like bifidobacterium) in our gut, allowing them to grow in numbers.

In technical terms, prebiotics are non-digestible fibrous substances (mostly fermentable carbohydrates). Since we can’t digest these carbs, they pass through into our lower digestive tract, where they become a food source for healthy bacteria, acting like fertilizer to help them grow.3 So, with the right amount of prebiotics in our system we optimize the work of the healthy bacteria that promotes good gut health. 

Read more about the role of prebiotics in supporting good gut health.

Then, What is Prebiotic Fibre?

You’ve likely heard of fibre before-just think of your favourite cereal box: “packed with fibre”! Fibre is the name we give to carbohydrates that our bodies cannot break down into sugar. These digestion-resistant carbohydrates help regulate the body’s use of sugars, keeping both our blood sugar and our hunger in check. Although prebiotics are a type of fibre, not all fibre can be classified as prebiotic. 

Different types of prebiotics

The most common prebiotics are: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). FOS can be taken from plants or synthesized, while GOS is synthetic. Both prebiotics have beneficial effects on human health. 

Other types of prebiotics include certain resistant starches, pectic oligosaccharide (POS), and Non-Carbohydrate Oligosaccharides.6 The names are daunting, but simply put, they have a certain chemical compound that helps them move through the upper GI tract without being absorbed, thus become nutrients for our colon. 

Recognizing Prebiotics on Ingredients List 

If you’re searching for the presence of prebiotics on an ingredient list, you’ll often see it listed as inulin (a type of FOS), any of the long daunting prebiotic names listed above, or simply: prebiotics.

Prebiotics Foods

Chances are you are already including prebiotic foods in your diet (e.g. onions). Well known prebiotic foods include:

  • Chicory root: contains almost 50% inulin. It is often used to relieve digestion issues. 
  • Jerusalem Artichoke: provides about 2g of dietary fiber per 100g, around three-quarters of which comes from inulin. 
  • Garlic: about 11% of garlic's fiber content comes from inulin and 6% from FOS
  • Bananas: high in resistant starch and full of fiber, they help promote the growth of healthy gut bacteria. 
  • Flaxseeds: full of fiber, which is 20-40% prebiotic soluble fiber. 8

At the moment there are no official dietary recommendations for “adequate intake” or a “recommended daily allowance” for prebiotics or probiotics, but researchers do recommend eating at least 3g to 5g of prebiotics per day in order to see some benefit, and more generally to eat 28g of fibre per day (based on a diet of 2000 kcal per day).7

However, since low quantities of FOS and GOS naturally exist in foods, we must try and incorporate them through various sources (e.g. prebiotic breakfast or protein bars, or prebiotic supplements).5

Prebiotic Supplements

Although it’s best to include prebiotics in your diet,  you can top up your intake with prebiotic supplements. Be careful though: some “prebiotic” supplements actually contain mainly non-prebiotic forms of fibre, so be sure to check the ingredients contain fermentable insoluble fibers such as inulin and oligofructose. Lastly, be cautious when buying supplements that contain only a few milligrams of prebiotics, as this is likely not sufficient to offer any substantial benefit.9

Learn more about prebiotics and probiotics in our 'ask the expert'.

Overall, prebiotics are necessary for those healthy gut bacteria to thrive. Having a healthy digestive system can improve your mood positively, improve your immune system, or even influence cognitive and behavior functions.

Which foods do you try to incorporate to add prebiotics foods and supplements to your diet? Let us know in the comments below!

December 08, 2020 Lynn Liu By Lynn Liu My Articles
 

References

  1. Lai, H., Young, J., Lin, C., Chang, C., Lu, C., Martel, J., Ojcius, D. and Ko, Y. (2014). Impact of the gut microbiota, prebiotics, and probiotics on human health and disease. Biomedical Journal, 37(5), p.259.
  2. D'Amelio, P., & Sassi, F. (2018). Gut Microbiota, Immune System, and Bone. Calcified tissue international, 102(4), 415–425.
  3. Slavin J. (2013). Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients, 5(4), 1417–1435.
  4. Brownawell A.M., Caers W., Gibson G.R., Kendall C.W.C., Lewis K.D., Ringel Y., Slavin J.L. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber: Current regulatory status, future research, and goals. J. Nutr. 2012;142:1–13. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.148155.
  5. Slavin J. (2013). Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients, 5(4), 1417–1435.
  6. Davani-Davari, D., Negahdaripour, M., Karimzadeh, I., Seifan, M., Mohkam, M., Masoumi, S. J., Berenjian, A., & Ghasemi, Y. (2019). Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 8(3), 92.
  7. Murphy, M. M., Douglass, J. S., & Birkett, A. (2008). Resistant Starch Intakes in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(1), 67–78. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.10.012
  8. European Commission. EU Register of nutrition and health claims made on foods [Internet]
  9. Carlson, J. L., Erickson, J. M., Lloyd, B. B., & Slavin, J. L. (2018). Health Effects and Sources of Prebiotic Dietary Fiber. Current developments in nutrition, 2(3), nzy005.
  10. Gibson, G., Hutkins, R., Sanders, M. et al. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 14, 491–502.