Water Scarcity | 6 Ways To Reduce Water Consumption in Agriculture
Agriculture and food production account for around 70% of worldwide water use. In increasingly uncertain climates and with a steadily growing population, the predicted rise of water scarcity will have global effects on food production. Here are a few agricultural innovations that seek to minimise agricultural water waste.
What Is Water Scarcity?
Water scarcity is defined as the reduced availability of water due to physical shortage (for example, a drought), a lack of adequate infrastructure (such as channels and wells), or the failure of institutions to ensure a regular water supply. In other words, water scarcity occurs where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy the long-term average needs in a region.
Who Does Water Scarcity Impact?
Today, water scarcity affects almost every continent: around 4 billion people live under conditions of severe water scarcity for at least 1 month of the year - nearly half of which live in India and China. And, half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round.1 Water demand is also increasing in the Mediterranean region. Bordering the Mediterranean Sea, more than 180 million people are now affected by water poverty and an additional 60 million face water stress.2
Growing Strain On Future Water Supplies
Adding to the pressure on the world’s water resources, we will require an estimated 50% increase in agricultural production and a 15% increase in water withdrawals to feed the planet a planet of 9 billion people by 2050.3 And, rising average temperatures associated with changing climates are predicted to increase the occurrence and intensity of extreme events, such as droughts and floods.
October 2020 was the warmest on record in Europe.4 According to a Joint Research Centre study released in 2020, southern regions in Europe are expected to be more heavily impacted by the effects of extreme heat, water scarcity, drought, forest fires and resultant agricultural losses.5 With southern European countries responsible for producing a large portion of Europe’s food supply, the effects of severe agricultural losses in the regions will be felt widely.
Learn about the water footprint of foods.
6 Agricultural Solutions To Reduce Water Use
All around the globe scientists and researchers are working to develop smart solutions to reduce water scarcity. The European Institute of Innovation and Technology also launched an initiative to find solutions to water scarcity, with a special focus on Southern Europe. Here are 6 smart solutions to reduce water use in agriculture.
1. High-tech irrigation systems
More recent innovative solutions see digitalisation incorporated into agriculture systems. Some companies are now able to empower farmers to make data-driven decisions and reduce their water consumption by up to 30% thanks to soil-moisture sensors.6 The Italian company Bluetentacles allows farmers to irrigate fields only when it’s necessary, thanks to climate and soil moisture data. A similar system has also been developed by the Spanish startup BioAgro, which has created a smart irrigation platform using low-cost technology based on information obtained by sensors. The sensors calibrate soil moisture and allow automatic irrigation and application of fertilisers only when the crops need it. These platforms could also provide farmers with forecasting and alerts about conditions that may threaten crops, so they can take appropriate action in a convenient and timely way.
2. Drip irrigation systems for poorer regions
In poorer regions, some of the cheaper and more practical solutions to save water are drip irrigation systems, which use frequent irrigation in small, targeted amounts. These systems consist of digging pipes underground and opening tiny holes in the pipes near the roots of the plants, ensuring minimal water is lost to evaporation in the air. The pipes are then opened frequently in short intervals to provide water for plants right where they need it.7 According to some studies, drip irrigation systems have been used with success in arid and semi-arid regions for vegetable production, forage crops, and the maintenance of trees.8
3. Storing water in dry regions
In dry regions, storing water in a smart way is also very important. In Colombia, the CGIAR Research Programme on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) focuses on climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to help small-scale farmers adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change. This is achieved by catching rainwater when it's available and helping farmers to efficiently channel rainwater to reservoirs or storage tanks to be used when the weather is drier.9
Israel: a success story
Israel, which is 60% desert, shows that better water management through these innovative systems is possible: the country has revolutionized its water recycling system to provide 25% of its agricultural water use. Today, nearly 90% of wastewater is recycled in Israel, around four times higher than any other country in the world.10
4. Recycling wastewater
To better manage wastewater, the Italian Captive Systems remove pollutants from wastewater by using magnetic nanoparticles with a ferromagnetic core and external coating. The system is able to selectively remove different types of pollutants from wastewater, ranging from hydrocarbons and organic compounds to metals. This allows wastewater to be recycled with potential reuse in agriculture.
5. Aquaponics: combining agricultural techniques
Aquaponics provides a fascinating solution to water scarcity. This system results from the combination of aquaculture (the practice of fish farming) and hydroponics (the cultivation of plants in water without soil). In some integrated farms, these systems can reduce water consumption by 90% compared to traditional agriculture.11
Read more about how aquaponics works.
6. Regenerative agriculture: focusing on soil
To adapt to climate change and reduce greenhouse (GHG) emissions at the same time, researchers, experts and farmers are now exploring “regenerative agriculture”- a way to grow crops that aims to increase biodiversity, enrich soils, improve watersheds, and enhance the health of livestock and wildlife. By focussing primarily on soil health rather than the seeds that are sewn, regenerative agriculture promotes a system where the “health of soil, plants, animals, and humans is one and indivisible”.12 This more circular and holistic view of production is also thought to help crops and fields become more resilient during stressful conditions - particularly during droughts.13
What You Can Do To Save Water
While farmers use the latest technologies to avoid wasting water, we can also change our eating habits to reduce some of our water footprint. For example, we could reduce meat consumption (it takes a lot of water to produce meat!) and prefer foods with a lower water footprint. Avoiding food waste is also going to help avoiding water waste – so a good rule of thumb could be to buy only what we are realistically going to be able to consume. Ultimately, our beliefs and mindsets are going to inform our behaviour – so it helps to remember that every drop of water counts.
What do you think of these ideas? Tell us in the comments below!