Earth First

The Brazil Nut | How It’s Grown

At first glance, the Brazil nut seems little more than an oversized, overpriced nut you pass in the supermarket. You would never imagine the extraordinary journey it has made to reach you. But what is the actual story behind this nut, and what makes it so unique?

Brazil Nuts Only Grow Wild

You might not have thought it, but Brazil nuts are actually a pretty big deal – adding tens of millions to South American economies each year. Brazil nuts are the most economically important non-timber forest product in the Amazon Basin.1 Mainly an export product, the UK, United States and Germany gobbling up an annual average of 21,000 metric tons.2

But, despite its popularity, many of us are clueless to the fact that nearly every Brazil nut has come from Amazon rainforests, hand-picked by forest-dwelling harvesters – as Manuel Guariguata, CIFOR’s Principal Scientist on tropical forest ecology and management tells me from his office in Peru, ‘the Brazil nut is the only internationally traded nut that comes from the wild, so it’s very unique’.

Where Do Brazil Nuts Come From?

To make things confusing, the Brazil nut is actually a seed, not a nut. These seeds come from the fruits of one of the largest and longest-living organisms in the Amazon rainforest: the Brazil nut tree or Bertholletia Excelsa. Coined ‘excelsa’ in 1808 by naturalists Alexander von Humboldt and Aime Bonpland for its impressive size, these Amazonian giants tower above the canopy, reaching heights of up to 50 metres and establishing trunks as wide as men. Using radiocarbon dating, some trees have been aged between 800 and 1000 years old.3 The tree can be found widely distributed throughout the Amazon, in areas of non-flooded ground across the Guianas, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil.4

How Are Brazil Nuts Harvested?

Brazil nut harvesting has a long history throughout the Amazon basin, with exports to Europe dating back to the mid-1600s.5 The majority of collection takes place along the tri-border regions of Acre, Brazil, Pando, Bolivia and Madre de Dios, Peru, where it is a crucial source of income for many local communities. Each year, thousands of collectors or castaneros make their journey to the forest, where they will spend the next few months collecting fruit.

Collectors harvest brazil nuts during the wet season (January-March) when most of the trees’ fruit has fallen to the forest floor. Mature fruits resemble woody cannonballs which are so robust that only the agouti, a rodent with the right dental equipment, can crack them open. Each fruit contains roughly 20 seeds (nuts) which are individually armoured and neatly packed like orange segments.

An established tree can produce up to 300 fruits, meaning collectors can harvest some 6000 seeds per tree. The seeds are extracted from the fruit using machetes, then carried out of the forest and transported via boat along the main river circuits, arriving – often days later – at urban processing plants where they are hand shelled, packaged and internationally exported.6

Now that you know where Brazil nuts come from, do you think we pay a fair price for them in supermarkets? Let us know in the comments below!

Related articles

Most viewed

Earth First

Seafood Fraud in The Supply Chain

Silvia Lazzaris

It might be easy to recognise a chicken from a pigeon, but it’s not that easy when it comes to…

Earth First

Reusing Olive Waste | Ask the Expert

Annabel Slater

Over 3 million tonnes of olive oil is produced each year.¹ This generates a huge amount of…

Earth First

Amino Acids | The Building Blocks of Protein

Lynn Liu

We tend to think that protein is a simple macronutrient that your body needs. However, if you ever…

Earth First

Salmon Hatcheries | Lifeline For Struggling Rivers or an Ecological Burden?

Jude Isabella

With struggling wild populations, salmon hatcheries were a supposed solution to revitalise…

Human Stories

When Less is More: A Portrait of No-till Farming

Dr Caroline Wood

The Green Revolution in agriculture was powered by mechanisation, but our soils are now worn out…

Earth First

Microplastic in Our Food

Madhura Rao

From packaging material to disposable cutlery, today’s food system is no stranger to plastic. In…

Human Stories

Vanilla Beans: The Cost of Production

Samanta Oon

You would never know when looking at it, but vanilla happens to be one of the most volatile spices…

Earth First

Tofu | How It’s Made

Samanta Oon

Look into any modern day tofu factory, and you will see the shiny gleam of machinery that is needed…

Earth First

Nutritional Yeast: How It’s Made

Samanta Oon

Nutritional yeast—golden powdery flakes that add a whiff of nutty, cheesy umami when sprinkled…

Earth First

Mushroom Farming & Processing | Ask The Expert

Madhura Rao,Jan Klerken

We’ve been growing and eating mushrooms for thousands of years, but how has that changed in…

Human Stories

The Indian Farmers Battling Climate Change With 10,000-year-old Emmer Wheat

Sanket Jain

Across India, farmers have been reporting major losses at the hands of recurring climate disasters.…

Earth First

Carbon Farming | Is It Really a Solution?

Lauren Lewis

Carbon farming aims to remove carbon from the atmosphere by storing it in plant material and/or the…

  1. Moncrieff (2015) “A Little Logging May Go a Long Way” Accessed 22 July 2019.
  2. Kiprop (2018) 'Top Brazil Nut Consuming Countries' Accessed 22 July 2019.
  1. Carmargo, Salomao, Trumbore, Martinelli (1994) “How old are large Brazil-nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Amazon?” Accessed 22 July 2019.
  2. Mori (1992) “The Brazil Nut Industry -- Past, Present and Future” Accessed 23 July 2019.
  3. Staudhammer (2007) “Explaining variation in Brazil Nut Fruit Production” Accessed 24 July 2019.
  4. Nut Collection. The Brazil Nut Story: Sustaining the Amazon. Accessed 22 July 2019.
See MoreSee Less

Keep updated with the latest news about your food with our newsletter

Follow Us