The Future

Seaweed | Growing & Harvesting Farms

Seaweed might not sound very appetising; who wants to eat a weed? But seaweed is a nutritious sea vegetable that has been farmed and foraged for centuries. Find out how British seaweed farms are growing and harvesting this incredible sea plant.

You probably don’t realise it, but you use products containing seaweed every day. You can find it in toothpaste, cosmetics, beer, ice cream and paints. On an industrial level, it is used as a green fuel, in fertiliser and animal feed - all with little environmental repercussions.

Seaweed is quickly becoming a unique staple ingredient in our food. Known for its umami flavour and as an alternative to salt, Michelin-star chefs have embraced the range of edible seaweeds as an exotic addition to ocean-inspired plates. Seaweed is high in protein, omega oils and a range of vitamins and minerals, so it’s easy to see why it is growing in popularity among our health-conscious society.

But how are seaweed farmers meeting these growing demands for seaweed?

Traditional Seaweed Harvesting

Seaweed has long been a significant part of East Asian diets. For centuries, wild seaweed harvesting has been part of coastal community culture across Northern Europe and the British Isles. How did they grow and harvest seaweed?

Picture a rugged coastline. Local townsfolk wade into the murky seawater among the rocks to hand-pick rubbery leaves of dark green and brown. Or in the calm after a storm, they wander along a shoreline gathering washed up seaweed fronds. Back then, people knew the seasons for picking and how to use each type of seaweed. In many communities, women would take the lead in gathering seaweed for food to sell locally.1

Today, harvesting wild seaweed contributes to the majority of seaweed production in Europe, with the largest producers being in France, Norway, Ireland, Iceland and Russia. In Ireland, 10,000 wet tonnes of seaweed are gathered yearly from a single beach in Cork.1

"Irish Moss" is a species of red algae with a particularly rich history. In 19th-century Ireland, this seaweed was gathered and dried for use in flans, tonics and beer, and was even thought to have medicinal properties.

Editor's Note: The benefits of many medicinal plants are woefully understudied, including Irish Moss. That said, early studies have highlighted Irish Moss as a potential avenue for slowing down Parkinson's or boosting our immunity. At the same time, like so many of our seafoods these days, Irish Moss can come with a risk of arsenic, lead, or mercury contamination. We will be keeping an eye on the latest research for you.

Modern Seaweed Farms

 Traditional methods of gathering wild seaweed are by nature unreliable. The work is labour-intensive and costly. With this in mind, experts have observed that the “increasing demand for seaweeds as food products can only be adequately met by cultivation.”1 According to FAO, 96% of global seaweed production is now in cultivated farms rather than wild harvesting (including other uses like fuel, as well as food).2

The type of cultivation depends on how the species of seaweed replicates and reproduces. The simplest and most common cultivation method is to attach pieces of seaweed to rope lines or nets suspended in the sea, often near the coast. They hang on wooden stakes or on a floating wooden framework dug down into the seabed.

Nori, the black seaweed used in sushi, is grown using nets that spores settle onto. The nets are hung at a depth that allows the seaweed to be exposed to the air for a few hours a day when the tide is out. Another technique used to grow Sea Grapes or “Green Caviar” is simply planting a cutting of seaweed (about 100g) into the seabed to help it take root.3

Harvesting Seaweed

While most seaweed harvesting in the UK is still gathered by hand at low tide, other countries harvest wild seaweed with boats and machinery, using a rake or trawler methods. This is much more efficient than hand collection, but if used excessively, it can have a severe habitat impact as it can pull up other seaweeds and disrupt habitats.4

Seaweed harvesters have given an encouraging amount of thought and attention to this issue. For example, in Norway, the rake method only removes the top floating canopy of seaweed, which allows the seaweed to regrow over the next two years and minimises seabed disruption.5

Seaweed's Sustainability

In addition to providing food and shelter to all the creatures inhabiting its aqua ecosystem, seaweed forests can decrease carbon dioxide on the sea's surface and in the atmosphere.6 Seaweed also absorbs dissolved nutrients from the water, which can decrease eutrophication caused by water pollution.7

Fun fact: Adding dried seaweed to cow feed can reduce their production of the greenhouse gas methane by 99%.7

One cautionary warning is that as a natural filter, seaweed can have high levels of iodine and metals if exposed to polluted water.7 This means that although nutritious in many ways, seaweed can be harmful if consumed in high amounts.

Related articles

Most viewed

Earth First

What is “Natural Food”?

Lottie Bingham

Rising demand for "natural" foods has seen the term used as a marketing tool in advertisements and…

Human Stories

Expanding The Gaze Of Modern Fisheries Management

Oliver Fredriksson, Dr Andrea Reid

Dr Andrea Reid is a citizen of the Nisgaꞌa Nation, an Assistant Professor of Indigenous…

Earth First

How Do Food Businesses Manage Food Waste?

Madhura Rao

Food can end up as waste before it reaches us for several reasons, whether it’s safety…

Human Stories

Food and Place | Does Where You Live Influence Your Eating Habits?

Luke Cridland

Where food is sold is not decided randomly, and many factors go into determining where you can buy…

The Future

How to save your food from pesky birds

Luke Cridland

Many creative solutions have been developed to help protect our food supply from avian pests. We've…

The Future

10 things you may not know about GMO

Luke Cridland

Whether you like it or not, you probably have an opinion on GMO. But how much do you actually know…

Earth First

Plastic-Free Food Packaging: Where Do We Stand?

Madhura Rao

As an avid advocate for keeping groceries as plastic-free as possible, I have always wondered about…

Earth First

Carbon Farming | Is It Really a Solution?

Lauren Lewis

Carbon farming aims to remove carbon from the atmosphere by storing it in plant material and/or the…

The Future

Cheap Seafood | The Social Cost of Production

Madhura Rao

Many workers employed onboard offshore fishing vessels have been subjected to unsafe working…

Earth First

Why Soil Matters

Annabel Slater

Soil is a precious mixture of the living, the never-living, and the dead. It’s a vital resource…

The Future

How Does Lobbying Impact our Food and Agricultural Policies?

Claudia Lee

Lobbying is often considered the sole remit of large companies and firms, but it also has the…

Earth First

Amaranth: A staple of the past and a crop for the future

Claudia Lee

From being offered to the Gods by ancient civilisations to being touted as a future crop that can…

Keep updated with the latest news about your food with our newsletter

Follow Us