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Plant-Based Diets and Gut Health
November 27, 2020 Adrià Porta By Adrià Porta My Articles

Plant-Based Diets and Gut Health

Eating more plant fibres can help improve your gut microbiota diversity and protect your intestinal barrier, while preventing the growth of pathogenic bacteria and cancerous cell growth. But, how exactly?

The gut microbiota consists of microorganisms that live in your digestive system, mainly found in the colon. Most of these microorganisms are not harmful and, in fact, are essential and even beneficial to our health. Nevertheless, these microorganisms are highly susceptible to our diet, and eating a diet rich in fibre from fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes is necessary to ensure a healthy gut and a happy microbiota.

How does our diet impact our gut microbiota?

A strong and healthy gut microbiota is important for digestive health, immunity against harmful pathogens and can even have an impact on your mood!¹ So how can a plant-based diet help you maintain a healthy gut? Well, the beneficial bacteria in your gut microbiota ferment fibre to feed themselves. These ‘good’ microorganisms take up space and resources in your gut, making it hard for disease-causing (pathogenic) bacteria to survive. This means a fibre-rich diet filled with fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes can be very beneficial  for your microbiota. 

4 ways a plant-based diet can improve your gut health:

1. Prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria 

Modern diets high in sugar and low on fibre content drive the growth of harmful microorganisms in the gut. When a gut environment has excessive sugars available as nutrients, it can increase the presence of pathogens that feed on them and make gut microbes more harmful, which in turn can cause inflammation. Long term inflammation is common in diseases such as diabetes and obesity, which are often related to a western pattern of diet in which simple carbohydrates and red meat intake is high and consumption of vegetables and fruit is low.²,³

Diets rich in fibre, however, allow your beneficial bacteria to ferment that dietary fibre and grow, making the intestinal environment more acidic in the process. The acidic environment also makes it harder for harmful bacteria to grow, as they are ill-suited to acidic conditions - tipping the balance in favour of beneficial bacteria, benefiting your overall gut health. Favouring a balanced plant-based diet high in fibre can therefore enrich populations of beneficial bacteria in our gut instead of encouraging those that cause disease.

2. Improve gut microbiota diversity

A balanced plant-based diet rich in different kinds of vegetables can also increase the healthy microorganism diversity of your microbiota. This occurs because different types of plant-based foods have different types of fibre in them, and can therefore feed a range of different beneficial microorganisms. Fibre supplementation has a similar effect in this regard. In contrast, diets consisting of lots of refined sugars and saturated fat with a low consumption of whole fruits and vegetables have been shown to contribute to lower microbiota diversity - such lower diversity has also been associated with certain diseases such as obesity and diabetes,, and has also been related to anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and autism.¹ Some studies have shown reduced anxiety and depressive symptoms in those who have been treated with probiotics (beneficial bacteria).¹   

3. Protecting the gut wall

Our intestine has a thin layer of cells called the ‘intestinal barrier’, which protects us from things that should not be entering our body (such as toxic compounds or harmful bacteria and viruses), while allowing nutrients to pass from the gut to the blood circulation for distribution around the body. A disruption to the gut barrier makes it easier for harmful compounds to enter the bloodstream, putting our health at risk. 

This disruption of the gut barrier can be triggered by sustained unhealthy eating habits involving regular ultra-processed foods, as fats and certain additives from these products can increase gut permeability and trigger an inflammatory immune response. Although inflammation is a natural response of the body, sustained inflammation can eventually harm our own cells, leading to further damage of the intestinal barrier.

However, a diet high in fibre from minimally processed foods can help protect the gut wall. When beneficial bacteria ferment fibre, the process produces short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These fatty acids provide energy for your gut cells, thereby supporting your gut barrier and preventing harmful gut bacteria and toxic compounds from entering the bloodstream where they are likely to cause disease. 

4. Inhibit cancer growth 

Diets high in fibre can help prevent cancerous cell growth in the intestine. Firstly, the SCFAs produced through fibre fermentation can inhibit cancerous cell formation and can even lead to the death of cancerous cells. Secondly, as fibre is largely indigestible by our own cells, it can help us with our bowel movement, clearing waste from our gut. Fibre can also bind to certain heavy metals that may be in contact with our intestinal cell wall and help excrete them from the body. Some strains of lactic acid-producing bacteria have also been shown to capture heavy metals, reducing the health hazard of such elements in the gut.¹⁰ Because these beneficial strains feed on soluble fibre, lactic acid-producing bacteria increase their numbers in our gut when we regularly consume foods such as legumes, oats and certain fruits.

Eating a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes and avoiding high sugar, high saturated fat ultra-processed foods will help you keep a healthy gut microbiota. A plant-based diet can help fend off harmful bacteria, avoid inflammation and contribute to an optimal gut function. 

Would you switch to a plant-based diet to improve your gut health? Let us know in the comments below!

November 27, 2020 Adrià Porta By Adrià Porta My Articles
 

References

  1. Clapp M, Aurora N, Herrera L, Bhatia M, Wilen E, Wakefield S (2017). “Gut microbiota's effect on mental health: The gut-brain axis”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Adult obesity causes and consequences”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  3. Tsalamandris S, Antonopoulos AS, Oikonomou E, et al (2019). “The Role of Inflammation in Diabetes: Current Concepts and Future Perspectives”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  4. Zinöcker MK, Lindseth IA (2018). “The western diet-microbiome-host interaction and its role in metabolic disease”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  5. So D, Whelan K, Rossi M, Morrison M, Holtmann G, Kelly JT, Shanahan ER, Staudacher HM, Campbell KL (2018). “Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  6. Elizabeth L, Machado P, Zinöcker M, Baker P, Lawrence M (2020). “Ultra-Processed Foods and Health Outcomes: A Narrative Review”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  7. Groschwitz KR, Hogan SP (2009). “Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  8. Gomes SD, Oliveira CS, Azevedo-Silva J, et al (2020). “The role of diet related short-chain fatty acids in colorectal cancer metabolism and survival: prevention and therapeutic implications”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  9. Ou S, Gao K, Li Y (1999). “An in vitro study of wheat bran binding capacity for Hg, Cd, and Pb”. Accessed 31 August 2020.
  10. Kinoshita H, Sohma Y, Ohtake F, Ishida M, Kawai Y, Kitazawa H, et al (2013). “Biosorption of heavy metals by lactic acid bacteria and identification of mercury binding protein”. Accessed 31 August 2020.