EitFood EU

This activity has received funding from EIT Food, the Innovation community on Food of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), a body of the EU, under the horizon 2020, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation

December 21, 2018 Dr Ana Baranda By Dr Ana Baranda My Articles

Minerals | Where to Find Them and How to Preserve Them

Do you include minerals in your diet? Explore the types of minerals, their importance, functions, and the main food sources of each of them. Moreover, discover how to best preserve minerals when cooking.

How to preserve minerals in food?

The main losses of minerals in food generally come from the way in which food is handled - the majority of mineral loss coming through leaching, that is, the minerals are lost washed away by the water. A better way  to preserve the mineral content in food would be to choose fast-cooking methods like stir-frying, or procedures that do not involve immersing the food in water for a long time such as steaming, or microwaving.

Read more about what minerals are and how much to consume

Why are minerals important, and which foods contain them?

The following table shows each mineral’s main function as well as its main food sources:

Mineral Important For Main food sources
Calcium (Ca) Healthy bones and teeth nervous system muscle contraction blood clotting immune system health Milk and dairy products, dark leafy greens like spinach, kale, turnips, and collard greens, sardines, beans, chickpeas almonds
Phosphorus (P) Healthy bone tooth structure cell structure Sunflowers seeds, milk and dairy products, nuts, eggs, salmon, tuna, pork
Sodium (Na) Proper fluid balance nerve transmission muscle contraction Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, breads, vegetables, and unprocessed meats
Chloride (Cl) Proper fluid balance stomach acid Table salt, soy sauce; large amounts in processed foods; small amounts in milk, meats, breads, and vegetables
Magnesium (Mg) Bones muscle contraction nerve transmission immune system health Nuts and seeds, legumes, green vegetables; seafood; chocolate
Potassium (K) Nerve transmission muscle contraction Nuts, legumes, dark chocolate, fish, leafy green, dried apricots, bananas, cantaloupe, kiwi
Sulfur (S) Found in protein molecules Foods rich in protein: meats, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products
Iron (Fe) Formation of haemoglobin in red blood cells Liver, red meat, legumes, shellfish (specially clams), almonds, spinach, poultry, dark chocolate
Zinc (Zn) Wound healing fetal development growth sexual maturation immune system health Oysters, seeds, nuts, meats, fish (anchovies, sardines), whole grains
Iodine (I) The thyroid hormones Seafoods (sea fish, shellfish, and seaweed), iodized salt
Fluoride (F) Formation of bones and teeth prevention of tooth decay Drinking water (either fluoridated or naturally containing fluoride), fish, and most teas
Copper (Cu) Production of red and white blood cells infant growth brain development the immune system strong bones Shellfish, liver, kidney, nuts and wholegrain cereals
Selenium (Se) Protection of the body against oxidative damage Brazil nuts, tuna, oysters, eggs, cheese
Manganese (Mn) Bone formation Nuts, mussels, rice, seeds, legumes
Chromium (Cr) Blood sugar levels regulations Unrefined foods, especially liver, brewer's yeast, whole grains, nuts, cheeses
Molybdenum (Mo) Part of some enzymes Liver, peas, lentils, cocoa, oats, beans

A varied diet is key

It is very important a regular intake of both macro-minerals and trace minerals. Eating a varied diet will help ensure an adequate supply of most minerals for healthy people. 

How varied is your diet? Let us know in the comments below!

Do you want to receive information and advice about how to improve your food habits and choices? Check our partners’ website ASSIST: Towards a smarter shopping list.

December 21, 2018 Dr Ana Baranda By Dr Ana Baranda My Articles